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Last Updated: 08/08/02

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Publications

CIT Foundation staff have been published widely on a number of topics, including  rural preventable mortality, rural research methods, injury prevention, injury rates, and training methods. Copies of materials that have been published by the CIT Foundation are available on request. Citations for materials are listed below:

  • Critical Illness and Trauma Foundation. Community Planning Guide. www.citmt.org/training.htm. 2002.
  • Pullum, J.D. and Kaull, K.D., Simple Triage and Rapid Treatment (START) Distance Learning Program. www.citmt.org/education. January 2001.

  • Sanddal, T.L. and Sanddal, N.D., State of Childhood Health in the Rocky Mountain Region. Intermountain Regional EMS for Children Coordinating Council. Monograph, 2000.

  • Sanddal, T.L., Sanddal, N.D., Upchurch, J., and Esposito, T.J. Analysis of Prior Health System Contacts as a Harbinger of Subsequent Fatal Injury in American Indians. Manuscript in preparation.

  • Sanddal, T.L., Sanddal, N.D., Fleming, W.C., Upchurch, J., and Esposito, T.J. A Demographic Comparison Between Native American and Caucasian Injury Decedents in Montana. Manuscript in preparation.

  • Sanddal, N.D., Sanddal, T.L., Pullum, J.D., Altenhofen, K.B., Werner, S.M., Mayberry J., Rushton, D.B., Dawson, D.W. A Randomized Prospective, Multi-Site Comparison of Out-of-Hospital Pediatric Training Models. Submitted for publication, Pediatric Emergency Care.

  • Esposito, T.J., Sanddal, N.D., Dean, J.M., Battan, K., Hansen, J.D and Reynolds, S.A. (1999). Analysis of Preventable Pediatric Trauma Deaths and Inappropriate Trauma Care in Montana. Journal of Trauma. 1999: 47(2) 243-253.

  • Pullum, J. D., Sanddal, N. D., & Obbink, K. Training for rural prehospital providers: A retrospective analysis from Montana. Prehospital Emergency Care. 1999:3(3).

  • Sanddal, N.D. and Sanddal, T.L. Montana Trauma System Report. Montana State Trauma Care Committee, Helena, MT: Montana Department of Public Health and Human Services. 1999.

  • Sanddal, T.L., Sanddal, N.D., and Dean, J.M. State of Childhood Health in the Rocky Mountain Region. Intermountain Regional EMS for Children Coordinating Council. Monograph. 1999.

  • Rausch, T.K., Sanddal, N.D., Sanddal, T.L. and Esposito, T.J.  Changing Epidemiology of Injury-Related Morality in a Rural State: Implications for Injury Control. Journal of Pediatric Emergency Care. 1998:14(6) 388-392.

  • Borzotta, A.P., Esposito, T.J., Reynolds, S.A., Hansen, J.D., Sanddal, N.D., and Irwin L. A Statewide Trauma System Improves Rural Preventable Mortality and Quality of Care. Submitted for Publication.

  • Sanddal, N.D., Moreland, J.E., Sanddal, T.L., & Pickert C.B. Self-Reported Compliance with Pediatric Equipment Guidelines for Ambulance Services Prior to an EMS for Children Program. Washington DC: EMSC National Congress. March 1998. Abstract.

  • Sanddal, N.D., Sanddal, T.L., King, B.N., & Esposito, T.J. The Use of Trained Volunteers in the Implementation of a Comprehensive Injury Surveillance System on the Blackfeet Reservation. Fourth World Conference, May 1998, RAI Amsterdam, The Netherlands. Abstract.

  • Sanddal, N.D., Sanddal, T.L., Upchurch, J. & Esposito, T.J. Prior Trauma Care of Intoxicated Patients as a Predictor of Subsequently Fatal Injury. Fourth World Conference, May 1998, RAI Amsterdam, The Netherlands. Abstract.

  • Sanddal, N.D., King, B.N., Hall, G.M., Tatsey, J, & Sanddal, T.L. The Blackfeet Nationís Use of Volunteers in Home Safety Activities. Fourth World Conference, May 1998, RAI Amsterdam, The Netherlands. Abstract.

  • Sanddal, N.D., Dawson, D.E., Mullins, T.J., Britt, J., Garrison, H., & Danenhower, T. The Development of a Comprehensive Injury Prevention and Control Plan in a Rural State. Fourth World Conference, May 1998, RAI Amsterdam, The Netherlands. Abstract.

  • Sanddal, N.D., Obbink, K.K., & Pullum, J.D. Using Electronic Methods to Overcome Barriers to Training of Rural Volunteers in Trauma Care and Injury Prevention. Fourth World Conference, May 1998, RAI Amsterdam, The Netherlands. Abstract.

  • Sanddal, N.D., Dawson, D.E., Mullins, T.J., Britt, J., Garrison, H. & Danenhower, T. The Development of a Prehospital Information System as a Basis for Injury Prevention in a Rural State. Fourth World Conference, May 1998, RAI Amsterdam, The Netherlands. Abstract.

  • Sanddal, N.D., Pullum, J.D., & Dawson, D.E. The Use of a Personal Computer Platform to Coordinate Injury Prevention in Rural Areas. Fourth World Conference, May 1998, RAI Amsterdam, The Netherlands. Abstract.

  • Sanddal, N.D. Native American Suicide in Montana, 1989-1996. Manuscript in preparation.

  • Rahm, N.S., Hansen, J.D. and Sanddal, N.D. Critical Trauma Care by The Basic EMT. Bozeman, MT: Critical Illness and Trauma Foundation, Inc. 1997.

  • Sanddal, T.L., Sanddal, N.D., Hansen, J.D., Fleming, W.C., Upchurch, J., and Esposito, T.J. Alcohol and Injury Deaths in Montana: 1989-1992. Under IHS Review.

  • Esposito, T.J., MacKenzie, E.J., Reynolds, S.A., Sanddal, N.D. and Hansen, J.D. Conducting Preventable Mortality Studies - Methods for Undeveloped and Developing Trauma Care Systems. Third International Conference on Injury Prevention and Control, February 1996, Melbourne, Australia (Symposium Abstract).

  • Esposito, T.J., MacKenzie, E.J., Reynolds, S.A., Sanddal, N.D. and Hansen, J.D. Analysis of Preventable Trauma Deaths and Inappropriate Trauma Care in a Rural State. Third International Conference on Injury Prevention and Control, February 1996, Melbourne, Australia (Abstract).

  • Esposito, T.J., Sanddal, N.D., Hansen, J.D., MacKenzie, E.J., and Reynolds, S.A. Comparative Analysis of Subjective and Objective Methods of Determining Preventable Trauma Deaths: Factors Affecting Agreement. Third International Conference on Injury Prevention and Control, February 1996, Melbourne, Australia (Abstract).

  • Hansen, J.D., Borzotta, A.P., Reynolds, S.A., Sanddal, N.D., Irwin, L., and Esposito, T.J. A Comparison of Preventable Trauma Mortality Rates in Rural Areas With and Without an Organized System of Trauma Care. Third International Conference on Injury Prevention and Control, February 1996, Melbourne, Australia (Abstract).

  • Rausch, T.K., Sanddal, N.D., Hansen, J.D., Esposito, T.J., and Robertson, W.O. Changing Epidemiology of Injury-Related Mortality in a Rural State: Implication for Injury Control. Third International Conference on Injury Prevention and Control, February 1996, Melbourne, Australia (Abstract).

  • Sanddal, N.D., Mitchell, T. and Esposito, T.J. Integration of the Psychological Disciplines into a Comprehensive Public Health Model for Injury Prevention and Control. Third International Conference on Injury Prevention and Control, February 1996, Melbourne, Australia (Abstract).

  • Sanddal, T.L., Sanddal, N.D. and Hansen, J.D. Alcohol and Injury Deaths Among Native Americans in Montana. Fourth International Conference on Safe Communities, June 1995, Fort McMurray, Alberta, Canada (Abstract).

  • Esposito, T.J., Sanddal, N.D., Hansen, J.D., Reynolds, S.A. Analysis of Preventable Trauma Deaths and Inappropriate Trauma Care in a Rural State. Journal of Trauma. 1995:39(5) p. 955-962, 1995.

  • Esposito, T.J., Dean, J.M., Sanddal, N.D. and Hansen, J.D. Pediatric Preventable Trauma Mortality in Montana. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Washington, D.C. 1995

  • Esposito, T.J., Upchurch, J., Sanddal, N.D. and Hansen, J.D. Native American Preventable Trauma Mortality in Montana. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. 1995

  • Rausch, T.K., Robertson, W.O., Esposito, T.J., Sanddal, N.D. and Hansen, J.D. Changing Epidemiology of Injury-Related Morality in a Rural State: Implications for Injury Control. American Federation for Clinical Research, February 1995. Carmel, CA (Abstract).

  • Sanddal, N.D., Esposito, T.J. and Hansen, J.D. Conducting Rural Preventable Mortality Studies: A Comprehensive Guide to the Acquisition and Review of Relevant Data in a Rural Environment. 1994. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Washington, D.C.

  • Esposito, T.J., Reynolds, S.A., Sanddal, N.D., et al. Rural Preventable Mortality and Protocol Compliance. 1994. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Washington, D.C.

  • Reynolds, S.A., Esposito, T.J., Sanddal, N.D., et al. Preventable Trauma Mortality and Rates of Inappropriate Care in Rural Areas. World Conference on Injury Control. May 21, 1993. Atlanta, GA.

  • Esposito, T.J., Reynolds, S.A., Sanddal, N.D., et al. Rural Preventable Mortality Study. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Transportation; 1992.

  • Sanddal, N.D., Hafen, K. and Karren, B. Instructor's Resource Manual for Prehospital Emergency Care and Crisis Intervention.Englewood Cliffs, NJ.: Prentice Hall; 1992.

  • Sanddal, N.D., Hafen, K. and Karren, B. Workbook for Prehospital Emergency Care and Crisis Intervention.Englewood Cliffs, NJ,: Prentice Hall;1992.

  • Sanddal, N.D. and Berjeron, D. Workbook for First Responder.Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall; 1991.

  • Reynolds, S.A., Hansen, J.D., Sanddal, N.D., et al. Rural Use of Pneumatic Anti‑Shock Garments. Atlanta, GA.: Centers for Disease Control. 1988.

  • Sanddal, N.D., Kuykendall, D.R., French, M.F., and Hansen, J.D. Occupant Safety Systems: Lesson Plans and Instructor's Guide for Emergency Medical Service Personnel. 1st ed. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Transportation. 1986.

  • Stevenson, J.L., Sanddal, N.D., Cote, P.L., et al. Emergency Medical Technician ‑ Paramedic, National Standard Curriculum. 2nd ed. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Transportation. 1985.

  • Sanddal, N.D., Hansen, J.D. and Rahm, N.S. Critical Trauma Care by the Basic EMT Training Program. 2nd ed. Helena, MT: Montana Emergency Medical Services Association. 1985.

  • Gibson, B.A., Calkins, C.F. and Sanddal, N.D. Respite Care Training Program. 1st ed. Kansas City, MO: University of Missouri at Kansas City. 1985.

  • Hansen, J.D., Sanddal, N.D., et al. Montana Basic Life Support Field Protocols, 3rd ed. Helena, MT: Montana Emergency Medical Services Association. 1985.

  • Sanddal, N.D. "News ItEMS: Rodeo Cowboys." Journal of PreHospital Care, January/February 1985:1(5):20-21.

  • Sanddal, N.D. "News ItEMS: The Future of EMS." Journal of PreHospital Care, October/November 1984:1(4):20-21.

  • Sanddal, N.D. "News ItEMS: Survival." Journal of PreHospital Care, July/August 1984:1(3):8-9.

  • Sanddal, N.D. "News ItEMS: NAEMT's Role in National Affairs." Journal of PreHospital Care, May/June 1984:1(2):20-22.

  • Sanddal, N.D. "News ItEMS: New Beginnings." Journal of PreHospital Care, March 1984:1(1):9.

  • Sanddal, N.D., French, M.F., et al. Emergency Medical Services Instructor, National Standard Curriculum. 1st ed. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Transportation. 1983.

  • Sanddal, N.D., French, M.F., et al. Basic Emergency Medical Technician; National Standard Curriculum. 3rd ed. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Transportation.1983.

  • French, M.F., Sanddal, N.D., et al. Emergency Medical Services Dispatcher, National Standard Curriculum. 1st ed. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Transportation.1983.

  • Sanddal, N.D. Basic Training: A Primer in the Fundamentals of Preparation, Presentation and Evaluation. 1st ed. Kansas City, MO: University of Missouri at Kansas City. 1982.

  • Sanddal, N.D., Goss, J.Q., Larson, T.B. and Horton, D.R. Slide Series for Emergency Care. 3rd ed. Bowie, MD: R.J. Brady Co.1982.

  • Sanddal, N.D. "Prehospital Treatment of Hypothermia." Vitals, Winter 1982:2 (1).

  • Sanddal, N.D. "Using Needs Assessment to Design Continuing Education Programs." The EMT Journal, December 1981: 5 (6):436.

  • Sanddal, N.D. "Corrective Feedback: The Tool for Achieving Performance Standards." The EMT Journal, October 1981: 5 (5):352.

  • Sanddal, N.D. and Threet, K.L. "Programmed Patients: A Method of Improving Field Performance." The EMT Journal, August 1981: 5 (4):275.

  • Heckman, J.D., Sanddal, N.D., et al. Workbook for Emergency Care and Transportation of the Sick and Injured. 3rd ed. Chicago, IL: American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons. 1981.

  • Sanddal, N.D. and Shorthill, J.L. "Task Analysis: Roadmaps to Skill Performance." The EMT Journal, June 1981:5 (3):210.

  • Boster, K.R. and Sanddal, N.D. "Advanced Driver Training for EMS Personnel." 1st ed. Helena, MT :Montana Department of Health and Environmental Sciences.1981.

  • Calkins, C.F., Sanddal, N.D. and Gibson, B.A. "Characteristics of a Competent EMT Instructor." The EMT Journal, April 1981: 5 (2):134.

  • Sanddal, N.D. "Instructional Design: The Format for Performance." The EMT Journal, February 1981: 5 (1):54.

  • Sanddal, N.D. "Don't Keep Continuing Education a Secret." Vitals, January 1981:1 (1):4.

  • Sanddal, N.D. "NAEMT, Its Role in National Affairs." NAEMT Newsletter, January 1981.

  • Sanddal, N.D. "Hypothermia, the EMT's Dilemma." The EMT Journal, February 1981:5 (1):36.

  • Sanddal, N.D. and Calkins, C.F. "EMT Training: Roles, Responsibilities and Performance Outcomes." The EMT Journal, December 1980:4 (4):66.

  • Sanddal, N.D. and Simmerly, R.J. Patient Programming. (Slide/Tape), Helena, MT: Montana Department of Health and Environmental Sciences. 1979.

  • Sanddal, N.D. "The Emergency Medical Technician as a Health Care Professional."  Emergency Response Newsletter, January 1978:1 (1):6.

  • Sanddal, N.D. Normalization. (Slide/Tape), Developmental Disabilities Training Institute. Helena, MT.1977.

  • Sanddal, N.D. Respite Care. (Slide/Tape), Developmental Disabilities Training Institute, Helena, MT, 1977.

  • Lukenbill, R.B., Sanddal, N.D., et al. Respite Care Training Manual.  Developmental Disabilities Training Institute, Helena, MT, 1977.

 

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