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Last Updated: 08/06/02

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Research is fundamental to all of CITís activities. Without strong data generated by researchers working in rural environments our efforts at prevention or training will have limited impact and success. Our research, both qualitative and quantitative, includes the identification of problems and the measurement of the influence that select interventions have had on such a problem. Often we rely on existing data and likewise we gather and analyze data that are unique to a project. Our efforts have used both highly structured quasi-experimental approaches and less rigorous evaluation processes. CITís research efforts have been widely published in peer-reviewed journals and presented at national and international forums.

Distance Learning (click for more)

Provider Comfort Levels in Caring for Infants and Children

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Over a 4-year period, recertifying prehospital providers in Kansas were asked to rank their comfort levels in caring for children. The responses of almost 23,000 providers showed that comfort levels remained relatively constant and were apparently not influenced by certification level, number of annual pediatric contacts, continuing education or longevity as a provider. The study was conducted in collaboration with the Kansas Board of Emergency Medical Services.

Imbalance Between Suicide Prevention Strategies and Risk

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*.pdf format (60kb

This study compared Montana's suicide prevention plan strategies to the mortality rate from suicide in various age groups, finding an imbalance between the strategies and the risk for the age groups. The project was supported, in part, by the Suicide Prevention Research Center, at the University of Nevada School of Medicine in Las Vegas, NV. 

Suicide Prevention Research Center

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Suicide is a prevailing problem in the Rocky Mountain Region, especially among youths 15 to 24 years old and adults over 65. In a collaborative effort with the University of Nevada School of Medicine - Trauma In, the American Association of Suicidology and the Intermountain EMS for Children Coordinating Council, the CIT Foundation is assisting with the founding of the Suicide Prevention Research Center in Reno. The center is developing a comprehensive, regional database on suicide with the goal of identifying targets for intervention, selecting "best practice" strategies, providing training, resources and support to suicide prevention specialists and designing research to help understand this tragic problem. 

Analysis of Prior Health System Contacts as a Harbinger of Subsequent Fatal Injury in American Indians (click for more)

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The purpose of this research was to identify and characterize any association between prior injury or alcohol-related acute care contacts with the Indian Health Service and subsequent alcohol-related injury death that may suggest opportunities for mitigation. Results showed a relationship between visits for acute or chronic alcohol treatment events and subsequent alcohol-related fatalities. This work helped to identify opportunities for prevention activities. This project was presented at the Eastern Association for the Surgery of Trauma and has been submitted to the Annals of Emergency Care for publication. This research project was a collaborative effort between staff and board members. Teri L. Sanddal, Nels D. Sanddal, James Upchurch and Thomas J. Esposito contributed to the project. It was supported by a grant from the US DHHS Office of Program Evaluation.

Pediatric Injury (click for more)
A study to document current epidemiology of pediatric injury-related deaths in a rural state and evaluate changes over time. The epidemiology of rural pediatric injury-related deaths has changed. Violent deaths related to injuries caused by firearms are at a magnitude approaching all other causes. These finding have implications for injury control strategies in rural areas.

State of the Region Report (click for more)
This document reports aggregate data on issues affecting the health and welfare of children across the intermountain region. For purposes of this document, the region comprises the states of Arizona, Colorado, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Utah and Wyoming. There are many similarities across these eight states including issues of demography, geography, climate and health care resources.

Pediatric Equipment in Ambulances (click for more)
A study to determine compliance with consensus guidelines for pediatric equipment by Kansas ambulance services prior to an emergency medical services for children (EMSC) program. The study documents a deficiency in pediatric equipment in ambulance services in Kansas when measured against published guidelines.

Preventable Mortality  (click for more)
The goal of this study was to determine the rate of preventable mortality and inappropriate care in cases of traumatic death occurring in a rural state. Education of emergency department primary care providers in basic principles of stabilization and initial treatment may be the most cost-effective method of reducing preventable deaths in the rural setting.

Preventable Mortality Replication Study
The goal of this follow up study, being conducted under contract from the Montana EMS and Injury Prevention Section, is to show whether the establishment of the Montana Trauma System by the 1993 Legislature had any impact on preventable mortality. An expert panel has reviewed the records of more than 400 trauma deaths between January 1, 1998 and December 31, 1998. Results are expected to be released in late 2002.

Pediatric Preventable Mortality (click for more)
A study to determine the rates of preventable mortality and inappropriate care, as well as the nature of treatment errors associated with pediatric traumatic deaths occurring in Montana. Education of ED primary care providers in basic principles of stabilization and initial treatment of the injured child 15 years old or younger may be the most effective method of reducing preventable trauma deaths in the rural setting.

Injury In American Indian Children
The purpose of this study was to document the current epidemiology of pediatric injury-related deaths among American Indian (AI) children residing in Montana (MT) and Wyoming. (WY). Childhood injury death rates are high among AI in both MT and WY. Motor vehicle crashes remain the leading threat to life among this population. Because of the geography of these states, motor vehicle crashes tend to be high-speed. These high energy impacts account for the large proportion of children who die at the scene and in less than 1 hour. Firearm injuries inflicted against self and others also are major factors in injury mortality. Increasing the use of safety restraints and devices may be the primary key to increasing the survivability of injuries. This strategy, in addition to other primary and secondary injury prevention efforts, should be increased on each of the reservation communities.


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